Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (2023)

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Applies to: Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (1) SQL Server (all supported versions) Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (2) Azure SQL Database Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (3) Azure SQL Managed Instance Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (4) Azure Synapse Analytics Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (5) Analytics Platform System (PDW)

To easily manage the permissions in your databases, SQL Server provides several *roles that are security principals that group other principals. They are like groups in the Microsoft Windows operating system. Database-level roles are database-wide in their permissions scope.

To add and remove users to a database role, use the ADD MEMBER and DROP MEMBER options of the ALTER ROLE statement. Analytics Platform System (PDW) and Azure Synapse doesn't support this use of ALTER ROLE. Use the older sp_addrolemember and sp_droprolemember procedures instead.

There are two types of database-level roles: fixed-database roles that are predefined in the database and user-defined database roles that you can create.

Fixed-database roles are defined at the database level and exist in each database. Members of the db_owner database role can manage fixed-database role membership. There are also some special-purpose database roles in the msdb database.

You can add any database account and other SQL Server roles into database-level roles.

Tip

Do not add user-defined database roles as members of fixed roles. This could enable unintended privilege escalation.

The permissions of user-defined database roles can be customized by using the GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE statements. For more information, see Permissions (Database Engine).

For a list of all the permissions, see the Database Engine Permissions poster. Server-level permissions cannot be granted to database roles. Logins and other server-level principals (such as server roles) cannot be added to database roles. For server-level security in SQL Server, use server roles instead. Server-level permissions cannot be granted through roles in SQL Database and Azure Synapse.

Fixed-database roles

The following table shows the fixed-database roles and their capabilities. These roles exist in all databases. Except for the public database role, the permissions assigned to the fixed-database roles cannot be changed.

Fixed-Database role nameDescription
db_ownerMembers of the db_owner fixed database role can perform all configuration and maintenance activities on the database, and can also drop the database in SQL Server. (In SQL Database and Azure Synapse, some maintenance activities require server-level permissions and cannot be performed by db_owners.)
db_securityadminMembers of the db_securityadmin fixed database role can modify role membership for custom roles only and manage permissions. Members of this role can potentially elevate their privileges and their actions should be monitored.
db_accessadminMembers of the db_accessadmin fixed database role can add or remove access to the database for Windows logins, Windows groups, and SQL Server logins.
db_backupoperatorMembers of the db_backupoperator fixed database role can back up the database.
db_ddladminMembers of the db_ddladmin fixed database role can run any Data Definition Language (DDL) command in a database. Members of this role can potentially elevate their privileges by manipulating code that may get executed under high privileges and their actions should be monitored.
db_datawriterMembers of the db_datawriter fixed database role can add, delete, or change data in all user tables. In most use cases this role will be combined with db_datareader membership to allow reading the data that is to be modified.
db_datareaderMembers of the db_datareader fixed database role can read all data from all user tables and views. User objects can exist in any schema except sys and INFORMATION_SCHEMA.
db_denydatawriterMembers of the db_denydatawriter fixed database role cannot add, modify, or delete any data in the user tables within a database.
db_denydatareaderMembers of the db_denydatareader fixed database role cannot read any data from the user tables and views within a database.

The permissions assigned to the fixed-database roles cannot be changed. The following figure shows the permissions assigned to the fixed-database roles:

Database-Level Roles - SQL Server (6)

Special roles for SQL Database and Azure Synapse

These database roles exist only in the virtual master database. Their permissions are restricted to actions performed in master. Only database users in master can be added to these roles. Logins cannot be added to these roles, but users can be created based on logins and then those users can be added to the roles. Contained database users in master can also be added to these roles. However, contained database users added to the dbmanager role in master cannot be used to create new databases.

Role nameDescription
dbmanagerCan create and delete databases. A member of the dbmanager role that creates a database, becomes the owner of that database, which allows that user to connect to that database as the dbo user. The dbo user has all database permissions in the database. Members of the dbmanager role don't necessarily have permission to access databases that they don't own.
db_exporterApplies only to Azure Synapse Analytics dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW).
Members of the db_exporter fixed database role can perform all data export activities. Permissions granted via this role are CREATE TABLE, ALTER ANY SCHEMA, ALTER ANY EXTERNAL DATA SOURCE, ALTER ANY EXTERNAL FILE FORMAT.
loginmanagerCan create and delete logins in the virtual master database.

Note

The server-level principal and the Azure Active Directory Administrator (if configured) have all permissions in the SQL Database and Azure Synapse without needing to be members of any roles. For more information, see SQL Database Authentication and Authorization: Granting Access.

Some database roles aren't applicable to Azure SQL or Azure Synapse:

  • db_backupoperator is not applicable in Azure SQL database (not managed instance) and Azure Synapse serverless pool because backup and restore T-SQL commands are not available.
  • db_datawriter and db_denydatawriter are not applicable to Azure Synapse serverless because it just reads external data.

msdb roles

The msdb database contains the special-purpose roles that are shown in the following table.

msdb role nameDescription
db_ssisadmin

db_ssisoperator

db_ssisltduser

Members of these database roles can administer and use SSIS. Instances of SQL Server that are upgraded from an earlier version might contain an older version of the role that was named using Data Transformation Services (DTS) instead of SSIS. For more information, see Integration Services Roles (SSIS Service).
dc_admin

dc_operator

dc_proxy

Members of these database roles can administer and use the data collector. For more information, see Data Collection.
PolicyAdministratorRoleMembers of the db_ PolicyAdministratorRole database role can perform all configuration and maintenance activities on Policy-Based Management policies and conditions. For more information, see Administer Servers by Using Policy-Based Management.
ServerGroupAdministratorRole

ServerGroupReaderRole

Members of these database roles can administer and use registered server groups.
dbm_monitorCreated in the msdb database when the first database is registered in Database Mirroring Monitor. The dbm_monitor role has no members until a system administrator assigns users to the role.

Important

Members of the db_ssisadmin role and the dc_admin role may be able to elevate their privileges to sysadmin. This elevation of privilege can occur because these roles can modify Integration Services packages and Integration Services packages can be executed by SQL Server using the sysadmin security context of SQL Server Agent. To guard against this elevation of privilege when running maintenance plans, data collection sets, and other Integration Services packages, configure SQL Server Agent jobs that run packages to use a proxy account with limited privileges or only add sysadmin members to the db_ssisadmin and dc_admin roles.

Working with database-level roles

The following table explains the commands, views, and functions for working with database-level roles.

FeatureTypeDescription
sp_helpdbfixedrole (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns a list of the fixed database roles.
sp_dbfixedrolepermission (Transact-SQL)MetadataDisplays the permissions of a fixed database role.
sp_helprole (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns information about the roles in the current database.
sp_helprolemember (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns information about the members of a role in the current database.
sys.database_role_members (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns one row for each member of each database role.
IS_MEMBER (Transact-SQL)MetadataIndicates whether the current user is a member of the specified Microsoft Windows group or Microsoft SQL Server database role.
CREATE ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandCreates a new database role in the current database.
ALTER ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandChanges the name or membership of a database role.
DROP ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a role from the database.
sp_addrole (Transact-SQL)CommandCreates a new database role in the current database.
sp_droprole (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a database role from the current database.
sp_addrolemember (Transact-SQL)CommandAdds a database user, database role, Windows login, or Windows group to a database role in the current database. All platforms except Analytics Platform System (PDW) and Azure Synapse should use ALTER ROLE instead.
sp_droprolemember (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a security account from a SQL Server role in the current database. All platforms except Analytics Platform System (PDW) and Azure Synapse should use ALTER ROLE instead.
GRANTPermissionsAdds permission to a role.
DENYPermissionsDenies a permission to a role.
REVOKEPermissionsRemoves previously granted or denied permissions.

Public database role

Every database user belongs to the public database role. When a user hasn't been granted or denied specific permissions on a securable object, the user inherits the permissions granted to public on that object. Database users cannot be removed from the public role.

Examples

The examples in this section show how to work with database-level roles.

A. Adding a User to a database-level role

The following example adds the User 'Ben' to the fixed database-level role db_datareader.

ALTER ROLE db_datareaderADD MEMBER Ben; GO

B. Listing all database-principals that are members of a database-level role

The following statement returns all members of any database role.

SELECT roles.principal_id AS RolePrincipalID , roles.name AS RolePrincipalName , database_role_members.member_principal_id AS MemberPrincipalID , members.name AS MemberPrincipalNameFROM sys.database_role_members AS database_role_members JOIN sys.database_principals AS roles ON database_role_members.role_principal_id = roles.principal_id JOIN sys.database_principals AS members ON database_role_members.member_principal_id = members.principal_id; GO

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